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Blacklisted Native Americans

(Blacklisting Native Americans With African Blood)

Wikipedia defines “blacklist” or “black list” as “a register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition.”

“As a verb, to blacklist can mean to deny someone work in a particular field, or to ostracize a person from a certain social circle.”

“Conversely, a white list is a list or compilation identifying entities that are accepted, recognized, or privileged.” [Citation: Wikipedia, 2011]

Blacklist: “list of disapproved people: a list of people or groups who are under suspicion or excluded from something.”

1. put on blacklist: to add somebody’s name to a blacklist

2. condemn: to shun or condemn somebody for behavior that breaks implicit or explicit rules.” [Encarta ® World English Dictionary © & (P) 1998-2004]

McCarthy may have borrowed the “made in the USA” technique of “Blacklisting” from a program of deprivation (barely perceptible to the rest of humanity), but widely used across the United States to institutionalize the practice of robbing Native Americans suspected of having African Ancestry from the ability to claim their true Nationality.

Black Indians were fined, imprisoned, ostracized and finally denied outright, their Creator given right to be who they were.

Now, Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc., has obtained proof to support the claim that Blacklisting was used against Ethnic (Black) Indigenous Native Americans (and/or their descendants) first in America. Consider the following:

During the years 1942 and 1943, Walter Plecker lobbed a virulent salvo in the form of a Native American Blacklist straight into the heart of a petulant campaign pursued against Ethnic Native Americans having admixture of African Blood. His campaign was as pernicious as the historic Salem Witch Trials and more vicious than the McCarthy Era Anti-Communist Hollywood Blacklisting Campaign, because Plecker’s campaign, unleashed in the 20 Century, eschewed moral decency and demonstrated complete distain for millennia of natural ethnic identification.

Plecker’s campaign was the missing piece needed to convert official anti-Black Indian Policies into Procedures absorbed by the National Superstructure, in order to accomplish Deprivation of Nationality, complete denial and erasure of the true legal identity and Nationality in Public Records of the intended victims-- Indigenous Ethnic Native Americans having African admixture. They created, in the process, a class of Ethnic Indians of no discernable ancestral connections, who were injected into a monolithic group of “Negro”, “Black”, “Colored” and "African Americans" stripped of Civil Rights, Treaty Rights and Human Rights.

What Plecker did will become apparent to you very shortly. Why Plecker chose to pursue this particular tactic, he admits in his letter , was that he felt certain these “mongrels” could use their “Indian“ identity to “pass through” to the “White” Race, and it was his mission (expanded to include all public officials) to prevent this from happening. Mr. Plecker even fomented White hysteria by suggesting that the dirty deed was already happening and that responsible White individuals found complicit in the treachery would also be fined, jailed and ostracized as well.

Walter A. Plecker, M.D., State Registrar was a notorious adversary of Ethnic Native Americans having African Ancestry and a firm adherent/proponent of the “One Drop Rule.” He was also the very embodiment of an American racist and vehement self-appointed anti-Ethnic (Black) Native American Czar, intent on denying them the Human Right to claim their true Nationality. He (literally) gave birth, life and vitality to the original dreaded term, “Blacklist” or “Black List”, in America.

Plecker’s Native American “Black List” crossed State lines and negatively influenced socio-political and economic relationships affecting Ethnic (Black) Native Americans, which continues to fester and plague Ethnic Native Americans having African admixture, to the present day.

Political Context

“The term blacklisting is generally used in a pejorative context, as it implies that someone has been prevented from having legitimate access due to the whims or judgments of another.”

“Ostracize a person from a certain social circle”

Older Americans may remember McCarthy-era Hollywood Blacklisting, as one of the most famous examples of blacklisting stemmed from an investigation launched in 1947 by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) into Communist influence on the motion picture industry.

Fear Factor: Domino Effect

Ethnic Native Americans, having no Legal-Political Representation, faced Native American Blacklisting up close and personal. The domino effect, of course, meant that Blacklist identification affected all other aspects of life, including economic opportunities, followed individuals from State-to-State, affected Military Enrollment, mandated forced racial-ethnic reclassification on Birth and Death Certificates, as well as Marriage Licenses, as a matter of public policy.

As the pursuit of Black Indians crossed State Lines, the Domino effect meant that Plecker’s Policy became a National Program of Exclusion, it began to affect tribes (other than the original victims), including the 5 Civilized Tribes.

For instance; Indian Freedmen guaranteed 1866 Treaty Rights within the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations, found themselves excluded from benefiting in the 1983 Reagan-era Native American Reservation Economy Initiatives, because the birth certificates of subsequent generations of Ethnic Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles indicated that they were “Negro”, “Black”, “Colored” and "African Americans," therefore, “they were not Indians.”

Finally, Plecker’s initiative, absorbed by the mainstrain, resulted in the modern exile of remaining descendants of original Indigenous Ethnic (Black) Native Americans and Freedmen from the Tribes, while the President, Congress, State Governments and everyday people stood idly by and let it happen, even in the face of Human Rights Laws demanding that Deprivation of Nationality and exile of a people based upon Race and Ethnicity is a worldwide crime against Humanity, for which Reparations must be made.

The only salvageable item produced by Plecker’s meticulously pursued Native American Blacklist, is that it provided a historical surname accounting of Native Americans, decreed Black by Plecker that might have been otherwise lost in the obliteration of their true Nationality by institutionalized racism imbedded in American policies and procedures.

It also gave rise to researching of Ethnic Native Americans in Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, and Native American Plantations from New England to the Carolina Low Country.

Plecker Letters

August 5, 1942

Walter Plecker Letter to

Tennessee Secretary of State

Regarding Melungeon Classification

August 5, 1942

Secretary of State,

Nashville, Tennessee.

Dear Sir:

Our bureau is the only one in any State making an intensive study of the population of its citizens by race. We have in some of the counties of southwestern Virginia a number of so-called Melungeons who came into that section from Newmans Ridge, Hancock County, Tennessee, and who are classified by us as of negro origin though they make various claims, such as Portugese, Indians, etc

The law of Virginia says that any one with any ascertainable degree of negro is to be classified as colored and we are endeavoring to so classify those who apply for birth, death and marriage registrations.

We have a list of the free negroes, by counties, of the 1830 U. S. Census in which we find the racial origin of most of these Melungeons classified as mulattoes. In that period, 1830, we do not find the name of Hancock County, but presume that it was made up from portions of other counties, possible Grainger and Hawkins, where we find considerable numbers of these Melungeon families listed.

Will you please advise as to that point and particularly which of these original counties Newmans Ridge was in. Thanking you in advance and with kindest regards, I am Very truly yours,

W. A. Plecker, M. D. State Registrar.



January 1943

Walter Plecker Letter to Local Registrars, etc.

Regarding Mulatto Classification

January 1943

Local Registrars, Physicians,

Health Offices, Nurses, School Superintendents,

and Clerks of the Courts

Dear Co-workers:

Our December 1942 letter to local registrars, also mailed to the clerks, set forth the determined effort to escape from the negro race of groups of "free issues," or descendents of the "free mulattoes" of early days, so listed prior to 1865 in the United States census and various types of State records, as distinguished from slave negroes.

Now that these people are playing up the advantages gained by being permitted to give "Indian" as the race of the child's parents on birth certificates, so we see the great mistake made in not stopping earlier the organized propagation of this racial falsehood. They have been using the advantage thus gained as an aid to intermarriage into the white race and to attend white schools, and now for some time they have been refusing to register with war draft boards as negroes, as required by the boards which are faithfully performing their duties. Three of these negroes from Caroline County were sentenced to prison on January 12 in the United States Court at Richmond for refusing to obey the draft law unless permitted to classify themselves as "Indians."

Some of these mongrels, finding that they have been able to sneak in their birth certificates unchallenged as Indians are now making a rush to register as white. Upon investigation we find that a few local registrars have been permitting such certificates to pass through their hands unquestioned and without warning our office of the fraud. Those attempting this fraud should be warned that they are liable to a penalty of one year in the penitentiary (Section 5099a of the Code). Several clerks have likewise been actually granting them licenses to marry whites, or at least to marry amongst themselves as Indian or white. The danger of this error always confronts the clerk who does not inquire carefully as to the residence of the woman when he does not have positive information. The law is explicit that the license be issued by the clerk of the county or city in which the woman resides.

To aid all of you in determining just which are the mixed families, we have made a list of their surnames by counties and cities, as complete as possible at this time. This list should be preserved by all, even by those in counties and cities not included, as these people are moving around over the State and changing race at the new place. A family has just been investigated which was always recorded as negro around Glade Springs, Washington County, but which changed to white and married as such in Roanoke County. This is going on constantly and can be prevented only by care on the part of local registrars, clerks, doctors, health workers, and school authorities.

Please report all known or suspicious cases to the Bureau of Vital Statistics, giving names, ages, parents, and as much other information as possible. All certificates of these people showing "Indian" or "white" are now being rejected and returned to the physician or midwife, but local registrars hereafter must not permit them to pass their hands uncorrected or unchallenged and without a note of warning to us. One hundred and fifty thousand other mulattoes in Virginia are watching eagerly the attempt of their pseudo-Indian brethren, ready to follow in a rush when the first have made a break in the dike.

Very truly yours,

W.A. Plecker, M.D.

State Registrar of Vital Statistics

Plecker's Blacklist: Surnames of Ethnic Indians With African Admixture


Albemarle: Moon, Powell, Kidd, Pumphrey

Amherst: (Migrants to Allegheney and Campbell) Adcock (Adcox), Beverly (this family is now trying to evade the situation by adopting the name of Burch or Birch, which was the name of the white mother of the present adult generation), Branham, Duff, Floyd, Hamilton, Hartless, Hicks, Johns, Lawless, Nukles (Knuckles), Painter, Ramsey, Redcross, Roberts, Southwards (Suthards, Southerds, Southers), Sorrells, Terry, Tyree, Willis, Clark, Cash, Wood

Bedford: McVey, Maxey, Branham, Burley (See Amherst County)

Rockbridge: (Migrants to Augusta) Cash, Clark, Coleman, Duff, Floyd, Hartless, Hicks, Mason, Mayse (Mays), Painters, Pults, Ramsey, Southerds (Southers, Southards, Suthards), Sorrell, Terry, Tyree, Wood, Johns

Charles City: Collins, Dennis, Bradby, Howell, Langston, Stewart, Wynn, Custalow (Custaloo), Dungoe, Holmes, Miles, Page, Allmond, Adams, Hawkes, Spurlock, Doggett

New Kent: Collins, Bradby, Stewart, Wynn, Adkins, Langston

Henrico and Richmond City: See Charles City, New Kent, and King William

Caroline: Byrd, Fortune, Nelson. (See Essex)

Essex and King and Queen: Nelson, Fortune, Byrd, Cooper, Tate, Hammond, Brooks, Boughton, Prince, Mitchell, Robinson

Elizabeth City & Newport News: Stewart (descendants of Charles City families).

Halifax: Epps (Eppes), Stewart (Stuart), Coleman, Johnson, Martin, Talley, Sheppard (Shepard), Young.

Norfolk County & Portsmouth: Sawyer, Bass, Weaver, Locklear (Locklair), King, Bright, Porter

Westmoreland: Sorrells, Worlds (or Worrell), Atwells, Butridge, Okiff.

Greene: Shifflett, Shiflet

Prince William: Tyson, Segar. (See Fauquier)

Fauquier: Hoffman (Huffman), Riley, Colvin, Phillips. (See Prince William)

Lancaster: Dorsey (Dawson)

Washington: Beverly, Barlow, Thomas, Hughes, Lethcoe, Worley

Roanoke County: Beverly (See Washington)

Lee and Smyth: Collins, Gibson, (Gipson), Moore, Goins, Ramsey, Delph, Bunch, Freeman, Mise, Barlow, Bolden (Bolin), Mullins, Hawkins

Scott: Dingus (See Lee County)

Russell: Keith, Castell, Stillwell, Meade, Proffitt. (See Lee and Tazewell)

Tazewell: Hammed, Duncan. (See Russell)

Wise: See Lee, Scott, Smyth, and Russell Counties.

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